### Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

### Topics - Silvio Klaic

Pages: [1] 2
1
##### Transformer calculator (Public) / Measuring and calculating permeability of unknown cores
« on: February 20, 2013, 12:31:20 AM »
I have a lot of unknown ferrite cores mostly salvaged from radio/TV and other devices.
Main problem with this is to how to know their permeability for calculating number of turns I need to make choke or transformer.

So I needed some simple method to test cores and get theirs permeability.
Simplest way to me is to measure inductivity of choke with unknown core when you know how many turns of wire you have on it.
Then calculate from this inductance factor AL and effective permeability μe of core.

Formulas
Usually you can find formulas for calculating in manufacturer Data Handbook or production guide.
The AL factor is the inductance per turn squared (in nH) for a given core.
Inductance formula is: L = N2*AL (nH)
When transformed, you can calculate AL with next formula: AL=L/N2
Once you have core data, value of AL is calculated from the core factor Σ(l ⁄A) and the effective permeability: AL= (μ0e*106)/ Σ(l ⁄A) (nH)

To get effective permeability, formula is transformed into this: μe = (AL*Σ(l ⁄A))/(μ0*106)
AL is calculated from measured inductance and number of turns.
Σ(l ⁄A) is calculated by measuring and dividing core physical dimensions of effective length le (mm) and effective area Ae (mm2): Σ(l ⁄A) = le/Ae (mm-1)
μ0 is permeability of vacuum - μ0 = 4*π*10-7 (Hm-1)

This formulae works for most core types except for rods and tubes, for them you need this formula: L = (μ0rod*N2*A)/l (in H)
After transforming we get: μrod = (L*l)/(μ0*N2*A)
where:
L is measured inductance
N is number of turns
A is cross sectional area of rod (mm2)
l is length of coil. (mm)

Testing
With this solved only thing to do is to determine optimal number of turns for measurement.
By using large number of turns there is problem with rise of loses by wire resistance, coil geometry and core loses.
Therefore best is to use fewer as possible.
With minimal number of turns, wire length is reduced, thus wire resistance is low.
Beside that with few turns we don't have overlapping wire and loses in coil construction.
However when using single or few turns there is problem with covering entire space on coil former to get fully distributed winding to use entire length of core.

So to solve that problem I did some testing. For my test I chose RM6S/I ferrite core.
I was using three different core materials 3H3, 3C90 and 3E5 and I make coils with different number of turns, form 1 to 31.
For measuring inductance I was using Agilent U1731C LCR meter (resolution 1-100nH, accuracy 1%) with 100 Hz and 1 kHz setup.

Wire thickness is another important part, if it is too thick you can get losses from skin effect.
On another hand if you use too thin wire you can get losses in wire resistance.
For my setup maximal measuring frequency is 1 kHz and on that frequency skin depth is 2.088 mm, thus wire must not be larger than AWG 6.
I choose to use SWG 25 (diameter 0.5 mm) with max frequency of about 80 kHz. Using this wire I can fit 9 turns on former in single row.

Measuring
One set of measuring was done from 1 to 31 turns with all cores exchanged on that turn. I repeat that set three times.
At end after several hundreds core swapping I compare readings from beginning and end.
Difference in data is from -4.62% to 43.37% which is primary result of loosening mounting clip after so many reassembling.
Most difference (higher than 10%) I got after 22nd turn which just confirms that less turns are far better for precision even in loose clip mounting.

Comparing 100 Hz vs. 1 kHz measurement data gave me difference from -7.51% to 0.98% which is not that bad.
Data from 1 kHz are much more close to datasheet values so it confirms that higher frequencies are better for measuring lower inductivity.

Data
All processed data are from measurement at 1 kHz setup. Those values are used to calculate AL and compared with value from datasheet.

Here on this graph you can see difference for each core material.
For 3H3 material stable results is between 5th and 20th turn, for 3C90 is from 3rd and 31st turn and for 3E5 it looks there aren't stable results however after 21st turn difference are gone totally wild.
So it is safe to say that measuring from 5 to 20 turns gives best results.

Conclusion
To get and calculate permeability the best method is:
• if possible, use high measuring frequency but close to working frequency of core
• use 5 to 20 turns (closer to 5 turns for high amplification cores)
• use thickest wire possible depend on measuring frequency and space on former
• fill up equally entire length of former in single row

2
##### Other (Public) / Magnets
« on: February 18, 2013, 03:48:04 PM »
It's difficult to find good information about magnets and how they behave.
So here I will put some info about them which I found over the years.

The best start is to look K&J Magnetics FAQ. On their site you have also other useful stuff like magnetic calculators etc.
Here are my expanded data from theirs FAQ which I have done thru measurements and experiments:

• Both poles of magnet are equally strong, but only when measuring in magnetic neutral environment. If you don't measure in magnetic neutral environment results will differ from pole to pole.
For example if you measure poles of magnets in nature on earth northern hemisphere where is south magnetic pole, you will get data with stronger south pole than north.

• Stacking magnets will get you slightly higher magnetic field, but there is limit how much magnets you can stack.
Magnetic conductivity of used material is not that good; therefore there will be resistance to magnetic field.
You can look values of permeability for different materials:
 Material Relative permeability Air 1.00000037 Neodymium magnet 1.05 Steel 100
So as you can see neodymium magnet has slightly higher permeability than air, but only small fraction than regular steel/iron.

Here are some measurements which I was performed on cylindrical neodymium magnets stacked together on top of each other (in series).
Diameter of magnet 5 mm, length 5 mm, grade N35, maximum strength 3900 gauss.
Measured only on magnet south pole with gauss meter HGM0200 (resolution 10 G, accuracy +/-2%):
 Number of magnets Field strength (gauss) Strength increase Length (mm) Max strength Max strength increase 1 3590 0,00% 5 3900 0,00% 2 3770 4,77% 10 3 3880 7,47% 15 4300 9,30% 4 3980 9,80% 20 5 4000 10,25% 25 6 4010 10,47% 30 4400 11,36% 7 4020 10,70% 35 8 4020 10,70% 40 9 4030 10,92% 45 10 4030 10,92% 50 11 4030 10,92% 55 12 4030 10,92% 60
Stacking magnets together does not give you too much more power and stacking more than 9 magnets is a total waste.
So no, you can not get more than 25% of initial (single magnet) field strength in any combination. Therefore combining magnets to get stronger field have no sense.

• The bigger the better? Not really, but it depends for what you need them.
If you are interested in building magnetic motor, holding weight or something where magnetic force is important, then this doesn't apply.
Bigger magnets have much less force per volume/surface than bunch of small ones.
Here is calculation for square magnets grade N35. Each is 10mm thick, with magnetization thru thickness.
Price and all data are from company that sells them in my country, so price can be variable to other places, but point here is to show difference in strength.
Pull force is calculated using The Original K&J Magnet Calculator.
 height (mm) width (mm) max strength (gauss) price pull force (lb) surface (mm2) pull force/surface pieces for 3600 mm2 total force (lb) diff total force total price diff total price 10 5 4300 0,56 € 4,9 50 0,098 72 352,8 314,04% 40,55 € 8,30% 40 10 4000 4,34 € 27,67 400 0,069175 9 249,03 192,25% 39,03 € 4,25% 50 10 4300 5,33 € 31,9 500 0,0638 7,2 229,68 169,55% 38,40 € 2,55% 60 10 4200 6,36 € 35,79 600 0,05965 6 214,74 152,01% 38,13 € 1,85% 40 20 3800 8,43 € 42,1 800 0,052625 4,5 189,45 122,33% 37,92 € 1,29% 50 25 4000 12,64 € 52,61 1250 0,042088 2,88 151,5168 77,82% 36,41 € -2,76% 40 40 4000 15,34 € 59,54 1600 0,0372125 2,25 133,965 57,22% 34,50 € -7,84% 60 30 3900 18,51 € 63,27 1800 0,03515 2 126,54 48,50% 37,03 € -1,11% 100 20 3900 22,80 € 67,77 2000 0,033885 1,8 121,986 43,16% 41,03 € 9,59% 50 50 3600 24,39 € 73,96 2500 0,029584 1,44 106,5024 24,99% 35,12 € -6,21% 60 60 3600 37,44 € 85,21 3600 0,0236694444 1 85,21 0,00% 37,44 € 0,00%
This data can be easily tested and some of my tests confirms that this is close to real thing.
So what it shows is that single big magnet is several times weaker than bunch small ones for same volume and surface.
Also you can see that price of single big magnet vs. smaller ones for same amount volume/surface is very close (10% difference).
However if you compare forces, then you need 3 times less smaller magnets to replace big one, thus total price, volume and surface is 3 times smaller for same amount of force.
Conclusion: smaller is better!

Further tests which are currently in progress, result will be posted upon completion:
• Magnetic force between two magnets at different angels passing by each other on rails.
• Suppression of magnetic field on one side by redirecting it using different materials aka "magnetic shield".
• Forces between magnets in linear motor with "shielded" magnets.

4
##### Other (Public) / Solar cells test (from calculators)
« on: January 27, 2013, 02:11:52 AM »
During years I collected several solar cells from malfunction calculators and now I'm thinking to combine and use them to make solar charger for single AA or AAA NiMh batteries.
I have two AM-1417 and one SA-3515 cells from Sanyo, one unknown marked KSC08B and 3 newish HP-3012DS.
Only data that I was able to find are for AM and HP cells: at 200 lux they produce 1.5V and 5-20 uA.
Now 200 lux is common lighting at desk level from indoor light source, but I planning to use them outside where light levels are 10 to 1000 times greater.

For charging NiMh battery, produced voltage of 1.5V is sufficient, but the question is whether these cells can produce enough power for reasonably fast charging. My term of reasonably fast charging is up to 8 sunlight hours to charge single AA 2500 mAh battery.
That is constant current of at least 312 mA per hour.

Test preparation

As you can see on image above old cells was electrically connected with conductive tape, which I didn't have. So I connected it with conductive glue. Process is simple; place wires and hold it fixed with some type (top center on image).
Then apply 2-3 thin layers of conductive glue in 20-30 min interval (bottom center on image). After 12 hours of drying apply hot glue on top of wires to fixate and isolate them (top right).
After cleaning up excessive glue, all is set to do testing (bottom right).

Test setup and testing
I was using 22W fluorescent lamp on mechanical arm as light source. With this I was able to precisely adjust height to testing surface. I measure wanted luminosity with lux meter LX-101.
Testing cell was done by connected it to voltmeter and precise trimmer potentiometer in parallel with voltmeter. Then I adjust trimmer to get exactly 1.5V and disconnect cell to measure resistance of trimmer. Measured resistance is then compensated for voltmeter impedance and by ohms law calculated to current at that luminosity level.
Description of my precise trimmer potentiometer which I use in this measuring can be found here.

Results
 10 25 50 75 100 250 500 750 1k 2.5k 5k 7.5k 10k Lux SA-3515-4 0,00 0,72 2,26 3,81 5,17 13,65 27,47 42,28 56,12 143,55 285,32 411,11 488,75 uA AM-1417 0,26 1,46 3,01 4,44 5,99 15,18 29,68 44,53 59,67 155,11 304,41 446,58 539,72 uA KSC08B-981 0,00 0,44 1,49 2,41 3,51 9,46 19,11 29,85 39,73 105,93 211,42 317,27 411,11 uA HP-3012DS 0,39 1,20 2,20 3,10 4,04 8,62 14,45 19,78 24,19 44,66 66,52 83,62 94,49 uA
As you can see from test results, data given from datasheet matches my results. However I notice some difference, mainly between two AM-1417 cells. Second cell (not shown in table) have almost identical response as SA-3515 cell.
This means that older cells have bigger differences than new ones. Not sure if this is to fact that they are used more or/and aging influences.

You may notice that new cells (HP-3012) have better sensitivity at lower light levels, but are weaker at high luminosity. Which is shame because technology of solar cells is much improved? Or there is some other reason for making these bad cells...
I was measure up to 10k lux which is max for my 22W fluorescent lamp. 10k lux is luminosity outside at cloudy day and on sunny day without clouds can reach over 100k lux.

To compare efficiency of these cells to standard outdoor solar panels, this data need to be converted to standard test irradiance (normally at 1000W/m2).
I don't have data how exactly my fluorescent lamp have luminous efficacy, so I assume to be about 70 lux/W, with this irradiance of 7 klux is 100W/m2. To convert data, I'm dividing lux measurements points with 70 to get W/m2.
As you can see from graph current is almost linear and I presume that test at 75 klux will give about 10 times more current than on 7.5 klux.
So using max readings of 10 klux and multiplying calculated power with 7 will get me approximately results for irradiance of 1kW/m2.
Then dividing these results with surface is close enough data for comparing power per cm2 with standard solar panels.
 Cells/panels dimension Surface Power per surface @ Irradiance 1 kW/m2 SA-3515-4 15,5x35mm 5,425cm2 0,946mW/cm2 AM-1417 14x35mm 4,9cm2 1,157mW/cm2 KSC08B-981 11,5x30mm 3,45cm2 1,251mW/cm2 HP-3012DS 9,5x29,5mm 2,8025cm2 0,354mW/cm2 SES 440J 655x537mm 3517,35cm2 11,372mW/cm2 Sole SL-40P 669x500mm 3345cm2 11,958mW/cm2 SEM-45W-M 670x540mm 3618cm2 12,438mW/cm2 SEM-180W-M 1580x808mm 12766,4cm2 14,100mW/cm2
In this table I compared result with some standard solar panels.

Conclusion
Anyhow, making charger from 7 cells which I have is not good idea. These cells are too weak, about 10 times worse compared to standard solar panels at same surface levels.
To build charger I'll need to have 100 times more of these cells. There is no way I could find that amount old cells and with new I'll need minimum 500 of them.
Calculation for charging single AA NiMh 2.5 Ah battery at 1.5V with irradiance at 1kW/m2:
1922 cells of HP-3012DS: 5386.4 cm2, 1.272 A/h = 1.907 W/h, 1.967 hours.
For same price solar panel Maxcell 40 Poly: 3345cm2, 3.555A/h = 5.33W/h, 33.8 minutes.

So these cells are no go.
I'll use them as light sensors instead LDR in my project for tracking sun movement across sky.
Another good use is irradiance meter, however I need to find precise and know light source to calibrate meter. The best I can think of it now is summer sun at noon without clouds, but this is only calibration for range above 100W/m2.
If you know other method for calibrating irradiance meter, let me know.

I'll conduct further testing in summer to confirm these calculations.
Another testing at that time would be with standard solar panels.
I found that they work only at high luminosity (no, indoor lighting can't be used for power source).
Another test is efficiency at different angles and with solar tracker.
There is also thermal test to see if they really lose power during higher temperatures.

6
##### Other (Public) / Low cost tweezers type LCR meter
« on: October 18, 2011, 06:43:02 PM »
I started new project; LCR tweezers - impedance measuring instrument, capable of measuring resistance, capacitance or inductance.
One of main reasons is lack of cheap instruments of this type on market.
Other one is that I have pile of SMD components that need testing and sorting out.

My other projects are currently in hibernation, mainly because they started to be too complex for my taste in current state of development.
In battery capacitance tester I replace 8bit ADC0804 with more precise and cheaper ICL7135 which also increase number of ICs for interfacing with parallel port.
At that point I was seriously thinking to use microcontroller with 10 or 12bit ADC, and replace entire circuit.
On pulse charger after numerous experiments I find out that complex charging signal is more effective, especially if contains complex charging/discharging sequences.
But to experiment with that I need to build far more complex hardware with standard ICs, at which point I decide to start working with microcontrollers.

My pile of SMD components is nightmare to sort out with standard multimeter. I have ability to measure capacitance, inductance and resistance on it, but switching between ranges to find out what is component value started to be never ending painfully slow process.
So I start to look for small tweezers type multimeters which can detect and measure components of inductance, capacitance and resistance. Sadly, existing ones are too expensive for my taste as amateur in electronics.
But this gave me idea to determine what exactly I need. Here is specification of tweezers which I want to construct:
• Low cost – less than 30 euros.
• Portable and small size, to easily fit into hand as tweezers.
• Battery powered for easy handling – idle auto power off (bonus for integrated charger).
• Based on KISS principle – fewer components as possible (single chip with few passive parts would be ideal).
• DUT (Device Under Test) automatic type detection – L, C or R (bonus for diodes, etc.)
• Fast type detection – under 1 second.
• Fast measurement – under 1 second.
• Low accuracy – 20% or better.
• Wide measurement range if feasible:
• Inductance – 1 uH to 1 H
• Capacitance – 1 pF to 1 mF
• Resistance 1 ohm to 10 Mohm
As you can see, I need small, cheap and simple sorting tool. I already have other instruments if I want more precisely testing/measuring.
After searching net I find this as possible project which may have something that fit/closely match or can be adapted to my specification:

I. group: Exact or closely matched
There are projects which involve measuring all three components.
They are based on measuring phase shift between voltage and current.
One is Russian version of LCR meter; you can find details at http://kripton2035.free.fr/lcr-repository.html or http://www.pro-radio.ru/measure/6873/ (Russian language).
Other one is at http://www.circuitcellar.com/microchip2007/winners/third.html

Now, these hardware projects are complex, expensive and big. Adopting them to my requirements is not feasible (my estimation).

II. group: Closely matched and can be adapted
Other instruments are mostly based to test LC, RC or only one L/C/R type and do not measure by default all three types.
There are many working principles from measuring charging time to change of frequency.
Here are some of those projects:
Adaptation any of this to my needs will require adding additional switching, some independent test hardware and then some way to determining what DUT it is.
However I find one version closest to my needs at http://members.cox.net/berniekm/super.html there is also changed version at http://benryves.com/journal/3632205

This is simple, small and it can be made to measure all three types.
However measured range is limited and some measurements require up to few seconds or are unreliable, like inductance where entire device can hang and need resetting.

I can recombine these schematics by using more LC components for resonance to increase measurement range and resistors to achieve my specifications.
For switching it will be needed to replace relays with MOSFETs or analog switchers like CD4066.
And all of that must be built with SMD components to be small.
In short: feasible but I put this solution for last resort if all other possibilities are exhausted.

III. group: Create completely new device from available methods
On end I decide to build my own microcontroller based LCR meter using new methods with new approach.
After thinking I came to conclusion that first thing to do is to find a way to determine what type of DUT is.
So I need something what all three types have in common and the answer is resistance.
Not standard DC resistance, but AC resistance or impedance - reactance.

Simply put I need to measure impedance at two or more different frequencies.
If DUT maintain identical reactance on all frequencies, then DUT is resistor and measured reactance value is actually resistance.
On other hand if DUT reactance becomes higher at higher frequencies then it is inductor.
To find out inductance, we can use formula to calculate it:

And at last if DUT reactance becomes smaller at higher frequencies then it is capacitor.
To calculate capacitance from reactance we can use this formula:

So this is simple method to automatically detect what type of DUT it is and do measurement.
Now all that I have to do is construct impedance meter, which actually work similar as classical DC ohmmeter with addition of using AC with changing frequency and made calculations for capacitance and inductance from measured reactance.

Searching web for this type of instrument did yield some results.
There is solution based on the same method but using computer soundcard and PC software – ZRLC meter.
See details at http://www.sillanumsoft.org/ZRLC.htm
This software solution is nice and it’s worth using it, but it is not mobile and has limited measurement range because it uses max 40 kHz from soundcard with single resistor.
By my calculations for my range I’ll need selectable resistance and frequencies up to few MHz.
Nevertheless this is proof that this method works. Here is another example for this method:

Surprisingly I didn’t find any other complete projects which will be using solution like this.
All other projects are about special functions like ESR etc.
However I find some other useful information:

So that is idea, now I have to do more detailed research, crunch some data and make calculations to find out how to build it.
Guessing these would be primary key points:
• Cheap digitally controllable frequency generator in range of 100 Hz up to 2 MHz
• Digitally fast selectable resistance for range
• Accurate measuring AC voltage with ADC

7
##### Programs / Oron Helper - Greasemonkey script
« on: September 11, 2011, 01:37:32 PM »
I didn’t find useful existing helper scripts for Oron, like ones for RapidShare or MegaUpload.
So I wrote my own.
or from: http://userscripts.org/scripts/show/112760
http://userscripts-mirror.org/scripts/show/112760

Script does next stuff:
• Automatically click on Free download button (can be disabled in script options).
• Showing countdown of waiting time in title (can be disabled in script options).
For changing script options, you must edit script.

8
##### LARP (Public) / Popis velikih LARP dogadanja 2011
« on: June 20, 2011, 12:07:52 AM »
Evo kratki popis velikih LARP dogadanja:

Fantasy LARP:
21-23.6.2011 Rajski Vrhovi XIV
lokacija: Zumberak, vise...
lokcija: kraj Jastrebarskog, vise..
13-15.8.2011 Rajski Vrhovi XV
lokacija: Zumberak
26-28.8.2011 Majcin Gaj
lokacija: kraj Vrbovca

FALLOUT LARP:
Event je trenutno odgoden do daljnjega.

Za ostale detalje pogedajte na larphr webu.

9
##### Transformer calculator (Public) / TO DO list
« on: May 09, 2011, 12:23:50 AM »
This is additional TO DO list for future upgrade of Transformer program.
However, for making any update I’ll need data about any transformer coils and formulas.
So if anyone is willing to help, I appreciate it.

• field for selecting the core shape (toroid, U, E, I, W)
• the input Amps should be user defined;
• wire thicknes in P1 should be user defined + a field with optimum calculated for both P1 and S1 (maybe S2) wire thickness;
• if it is feasible, due to the S1 wire thickness (in the stepdown type) to put an area cross section field (maybe different shapes for the wire);
• possibility of using transformer taps on S1 to regulate the output voltage
News 26.Jan 2013
• simplify user input fields and program handling
• improve corrections on core/wire specification
• add option to calculate with unknown core/ferrite by inputting few simple measurements
• calculate bare essential data to match wide range of cores/materials – if you need more precise or detailed calculation, then you need professional program or manual calculations

10
##### Other (Public) / Pulse charger...
« on: February 21, 2011, 12:34:15 AM »
I decide to start new project, pulse charger...
In my last project with battery capacitance tester I stuck with trying to recover battery by draining it to 8V and recharging in several cycles.
This however didn't produce any result and I have feeling that my old charger is not suitable in recovering process.
This 30 years old charger have transformer with 4 power diodes for rectifier and small light bulb for control...
So I decide to build add-on for this charger to transform it into pulse charger.

After searching web for some useful schematic, I found only these sites:
http://electronics-lab.com/projects/power/008/index.html
http://www.freewebs.com/acselectronics/batterypulser.html
http://www3.telus.net/sail/sj23/e_electrical_tips/e04.html

None of this fits my needs, so I decide to build my own version based on John Bedini principle.
I use 555 timer, set it up for frequency range from 500Hz to 3kHz, then with two out transistors set driver for MOSFET IRF640.
Then I test how this works with different coils and at end I find that 6mH toroid choke coil is optimal for this configuration.
I didn't want to use my test coil so I made one using parts from dead PC ATX power supply.

Here you can see on left desoldered coil, in middle core without wires (inner diameter is 13.5mm, outer 23.5mm and width 9.7mm).
On right picture is my new coil of 6mH, to make it I use wire with diameter of 0.3mm (with insulation) and 8.5m long.
I use instrument to measure inductance, but I think there are 294 turns unless I miscount somewhere.

Here is schematic for prototype. I used small light bulb (24V, 4W) as battery for calibrating device. Input voltage from my test transformer is 20V so I need to add resistor R5 of 47 ohm to drop down voltage to about 17V before 12V regulator to avoid heating.
R3 is for adjusting frequency form 500Hz to 3kHz and R8 for length of positive out pulse (duty cycle).

For testing device I decide to use another dead battery, it is 12V sealed lead battery with 7.2 Ah from 1993. It is originally used 5 years in UPS and then collected dust without charging. Using classical charger I fill it up under minute and drain less than 30 seconds to 2V.

Initial test charging with pulse charger is set as 1.4kHz, 60% duty cycle and last about 21 hours. After resting it holds voltage of 2.9V, and connecting 24V/4W light bulb will drop voltage to 0.2-0.3V. During this test charging, MOSFET become hot and there was no progress on battery, so I decide to reduce duty cycle below 50%.
After calibrating again with 24V light bulb I got this:

On left side is signal which produce 555 IC and it reaches 6V with 46% duty cycle. In center image is signal which drive MOSFET, for start it uses +2.4V and after -1.4V to block gate (without MOSFET out is +/- 4V). On right picture you can see out spike, it reaches 200+V and quick drops to 0V (under 46% of duty cycle). With this I solve heating MOSFET, and now only coil become warm.

During calibrating device to 700Hz I found that light bulb becomes bright, even brighter than connected directly to 20V. So I measure current and I detected some interesting phenomena. This 24V light bulb, directly on 20V, drains 3.6A current, but when connected to charger it drains only 230mA. Less than 15 times!
I think I should do another project involving DC pulse currents and regular light bulb of 100W. I'll try to use current directly from mains power to se if I can get same brightness on 100W bulb and to consume only 10W...

11
##### Alternative / Tehnika Eckasha Maharic Pečata(Croatian language only!)
« on: February 13, 2011, 05:24:55 PM »
Tehnika Eckasha Maharic Pečata *
Napredni glavni princip za osobno i planetarno liječenje

Kratki uvod

Učenja Azurite Melchizedek Cloister Emerald Reda svi su temeljeni na Zakonu JEDNOG koji prepoznaje povezanost i međuzavisnost svih dimenzija "stvarnosti" i priznaje da živući Bog ili Duh je živ u svim stvarima. Sva učenja Azurite Melchizedek Cloister Emerald Reda su vrhunska i posebnog priznanja znanstvene i energetske osnove Zakona Jednog. Praktična svrha ovih učenja je da doista oslobodi i osnaži sve, kroz proširenje svijesti i obrazovanog prosvjetljenja, kroz koje poštovanje, ljubav i kooperativno stvaranje je njegovano unutar globalne zajednice. Te perspektive potpuno obuhvaćaju geofizičko planetarno iscjeljivanje kao unutarnja posljedica osobnog usklađivanja i proširenja.

Tehnika Maharic pečata je glavni alat od iznimne važnosti tako da je učinjen besplatno dostupan svima. Kao sve Azurite MCEO tehnike i alati, Maharic pečat je čvrsto utemeljen u Univerzalnu Objedinjenu fiziku Polja, drevna Merkaba mehanika i znanost o Predlošku Materije (tzv. Božanski Nacrt). Ove tehnike su poznate kao Tehnologije Bio-Regenesisa koje su nekada bile opće znanje, učene u pradrevnim školama Uznesenja kod napredne Ljudske kulture, i smatrane kao standard, ali i kao glavna stvar, u dnevnoj praksi.

Maharic pečat, poput svih Bio-Regenesis Tehnologia, podrazumijeva konkretnu primjenu kod energije svjesnosti usmjerene na, i unutar, srži manifestacije predloška tijela. Ova tehnika izravno aktivira specifične matematičko-geometrijske odnose unutar i između Anđeoskog Čovjeka i planeta, organskog, evolucijskog nacrta, koristeći pre-materijske hidro-plazmičke frekvencije 10., 11. i 12. Dimenzije Mahara Struje.

Maharic Struja je bila u potpunosti ponovno usidrena na ovom planetu po prvi put u više od 210 tisuća godina, na GRU-AL točke, Sarasota SAD-u, Signet 2 od Planetarne Templar Mreže, na dan 1. siječnja 2000. Tijekom prvih 12 mjeseci, nakon tog vremena, blijedo Srebrna 6-kračna Zvijezda ili Hierophant je korišten u vježbama Maharic Pečata. Ovaj simbol predstavlja elektro-tonski program za 11. i 12. Dimenzionalni aspekt Univerzalne Kathara Mreže. Kada smo koristiti taj Hierophant Simbol u vježbama Maharic Pečata, pokrenuli smo aktiviranje uspavane 11. i 12. frekvencije unutar Zemlje i našeg vlastitog bio-polja. Kada smo izazvali aktivaciju ovih frekvencija, možemo započeti proces ponovnog postavljanja Izvornog Božanskog Nacrta unutar cijele naše energetske strukture, DNA predložak i fizičko tijelo. Struja Maharic je također jako važan val nosilac svih simbola i tonova koji se koriste u svim kasnijim vježbama.

Kako je sve više i više ljudi radilo s Hierophant i Maharic Pečatom tijekom 2000 godine, povećao se 11. i 12. dimenzionalan frekvencijski kapacitet Zemlje i ljudi. To nam je omogućilo da koristimo u vježbi sve više i više složene oblike 6-kračnog Hierophant simbola. Na primjer, umjesto vizualizacije 6-kračne zvijezde, mi smo vizualizirati 12- kračnu zvijezdu. Kao posljedica toga, donijeli smo sve više i više Maharic struje u naša bio-polja, a zatim smo bili u mogućnosti koristiti sliku 24- kračne zvijezde, pa 48-kračne zvijezde, te čak i 144-kračne zvijezde. To je pak pokrenulo sve više i više razine aktiviranja Maharic struje unutar planete i našeg vlastitog bio-polja. Zatim, tijekom druge važne prilike u 2001, Indigo djeca i ljudi pomogli su usidriti sljedeću razinu frekvencije zvanu Eckasha u energetsko bio-polje planete.

ECKASHA MAHARIC PEČAT

Eckasha se još naziva Eckasha Božje Sjeme i nosi matematičku frekvenciju koja odgovara temeljnim strukturama ključnih aspekata našeg Univerzalnog sustava koji se zove Ecka i Eckasha Svemiri. (Više informacija za te razine našeg prostranog Svemira mogu se naći u knjizi Voyagers II, 'Dance For' serije radionica i znanosti duhovnosti i stvaranja - Seattle 03). Ovaj lijepi simbol sadrži dodatno vrlo složene i moćne Božje Svjetovne frekvencije, osim frekvencija 6-kračnog blijedo Srebrnog Hierophanta.

Kada po prvi put radite Eckasha Maharic Pečat, nije neobično da imate poteškoća vizualiziranja boja i simbola unutar Eckasha, tako da se često početno vizualizira kao ravna 2-dimenzionalna crno-bijela slika. Kako postajete navikli na simbol i vježbe, možete uvidjeti da se povećava vaša sposobnost da ga zamislite kao više-dimenzionalnog i obojenog simbola. Ako imate poteškoća vizualizacije ikakvih simbola u bilo kojoj od tih tehnika, jednostavno IMAJTE NA UMU da je simbol tamo. Jednako vrijedno iskustvo vizualizacije je poznato kao "vidjeti-osjetiti", gdje se mogu "vidjeti" svaki detalji, a ipak ne "vidjeti" išta, u uobičajenom smislu riječi, gdje znate što vidite čak i ako ne "vidite" to! Ljudi koji imaju tendenciju da iskuse više od osjećajne razine (osjetilno učenje), a ne vizualno ili slušno, vrlo često funkcioniraju na ovoj razini vidjeti-osjetiti ili čak "čuti-osjećati". U tom kontekstu, vizualizacija je srodna mašti, i jednako je vrijedan i snažan način iskusiti bilo koju tehniku predstavljene u KS.

Nakon sidrenja i aktivacije ovog Eckasha simbola, količina frekvencije koju je planet akumulirao (uvukao u svoje bio-polje) uvelike se povećala. Kao posljedica toga, frekvencijska sposobnost vezivanja kod ljudi se također povećala. U vidu ovog uzbudljivog razvoja, bilo tko sada može početi ove tehnike pomoću Eckasha simbola umjesto 6-kračne blijedo Srebrne Zvijezde ili Hierophanta u vježbama Maharic Pečata. Izvorna Dugačka Verzija Maharic Pečata koristeći 6-kračne (ili više kračne) Hierophanta, se još uvijek može koristiti kao početni korak prije Eckasha simbola, ako to želite.

Uz redovitu uporabu MAHARIC pečata ili
ECKASHA MAHARIC pečata ćete:

• Započeti proces aktiviranja 8. do 12. čakre osobne Kathara Mreže.
• Pomoći otvaranju Kristalnih Pečata u tijelu (koje inače blokiraju DNK aktivaciju).
• Otvoriti Planetarno sučelje Bio-Napajanja unutar svog osobnog tijela, omogućujući tijelu kao vozilu da postane doista učinkovit alat za trajnu planetarnu mrežu i sveto mjesto rada.
• Izazvati aktivaciju DNK predloška koji će postupno i automatski aktivirati punu 12 dimenzionalnu Merkaba.
• Omogućiti voditeljima ozdravljenja da prenose 12D frekvencijske pod-harmonike, pružajući snažnije, dugotrajno, često trajno, olakšano iscjeljivanje - oslobođeno od deformacija osobnog i klijentskog energetskog polja.
• Zaštiti korisnike od neharmoničnih energija povezanih s Liječenjem, Astralnih i Sanjajućih Vremena projekcija, te drugim potencijalnim izvorima zadiranja / infiltracije polja.
• Pomoći svadljivoj "Indigo Tip 3" djeci (davati preko roditelja).
• Pojačati rezultate svih duhovno usmjerenih aktivnosti.
• Uskladiti osobne energije i energije okoliša.
• Napraviti Morfogenetski ponovni uzorak, očistili Karmičke / Miasmik Otiske, koji bi inače blokirali aktivaciju DNK predloška i postizanje istinske ekspanzije svijesti i potpuno utjelovljenje Kristovih Principa.
• Uskladiti, revitalizirati i obnoviti sve aspekte fizičkog i Suptilno-Energetskog Sustava Tijela.
• Pripremiti i opremiti sudionike da primaju i drže sve veći protok viših frekvencija energija, koje teku u Planetarnu mrežu i osobne morfogenetska polja koje proizlaze iz intenziviranja Zvjezdanog Aktivacijskog Ciklusa, koji je sada u tijeku (2000-2017).

Kada redovito trenirate Eckasha Maharic Pečat, opskrba visokih frekvencijskih energija koje se mogu privući u naša bio-polja iz Planetarnog Maharic Štita je ograničeno samo vlastitim energetskim kapacitetom. Naš kapacitet frekvencije se može postupno povećavati s dosljednom primjenom Eckasha Maharic pečata, kao i drugih preporučenih Keylontic znanstvenih tehnologija.

Tehnika
ECKASHA MAHARIC PEČATA

Ovo je kako Eckasha Kôd izgleda, a krugovi u sredini su Reuche.
Prije uporabe: Čitajte kroz korake i prakticirajte vizualizaciju, te se polako upoznajte sa njihovim redoslijedom.
• Zamislite 2-dimenzionalnu sliku "Eckasha Simbol Kôda", kao da je slika nacrtana na crnoj pozadini unutar vašeg čela. Eckasha je Simbol Završnog Kamena ili Kôda Božjeg Sjemena za Vremensku Matricu. Njegove boje obilježavaju frekvencijski spektar od Triadic, Polaric i Eckatic razina Energetske Matrice i 15 frekvencijskih Dimenzija. On će se koristiti kao ključni kôd za otključavanje 12. dimenzijskog Maharic Štita u osobnoj i planetarnoj skalarnoj mreži.
• UDAHNITE, dok vizualizirate Eckasha simbol u središtu mozga u epifizi.
• IZDAHNITE, koristeći izdahnuti dah da čvrsto premjestite Eckasha dolje, kroz Središnju Vertikalnu Tjelesnu Struju (energetsku struju u središtu tijela), van između nogu i ravno dolje u Zemljinu jezgru (13. Čakru).
• UDAHNITE, dok zamišljate da možete vidjeti na Zemljinoj jezgri ogroman, Diskovni oblik Kristalne Platforme od Blijedo Srebrnog Svijetla, koja se proteže prema van na horizontalnoj ravnini kroz cijelo tijelo Zemlje van u atmosferu. Vizualizirajte Eckasha kako lebdi u središtu diska (ova slika predstavlja Planetarni Maharic Štit, skalarno-valna mreža sastavljena od frekvencije dimenzija 10/11/12, s Eckasha pozicioniranim za aktiviranje Planetarnog Štita.)
• IZDAHNITE, dok gurate svoj dah van u Zemljin Maharic Štit, zamišljajući u toku izdisaja da sila daha počinje rotirati Zemljin Maharic Štit.
• UDAHNITE, koristeći dah za privući Blijedo Srebrno svjetlo od Zemljinog rotirajućeg Maharic Štita u Eckasha, pozicioniran u središtu Planetarnog Štita.
• IZDAHNITE, koristeći izdahnuti dah za guranje Blijedo Srebrnog svjetla kroz cijeli Eckasha, tvoreći Eckasha sjajnijim i pulsirajućim s Blijedo Srebrnim svjetlom.
• UDAHNITE, zamislite da sjajni Eckasha trenutno bljeska Tamno Crveno i onda se vrati na normalu, zatim koristite dah da privučete Eckasha okomito gore iz svog položaja u Zemljinoj jezgri, na poziciju 30 cm ispod nogu (pozicija vaše uspavane osobne skalarno-valne mreže Maharic Štita). Dok udišete Eckasha gore od Zemljine jezgre, Zamislite da ostavlja za sobom debeli kabel Blijedo Srebrne Svijetlosti, jedan kraj Srebrnog Kabla ostaje priključen na Zemljinu jezgru, a drugi na Eckasha (kabel predstavlja Liniju Napajanja Energijom, preko koje ćete povući energiju gore od Zemljinog Maharic Štita u svoj osobni Maharic Štit)
• IZDAHNITE s osvrtom na pozicioniran Eckasha 30 cm ispod nogu i koristite izdahnuti dah da gurnete rasprskavajući Blijedo Srebrno Svijetlo van na horizontalnu ravninu od Eckasha. Zamislite oblik Diska, Kristalne Platforme Blijedo Srebrne Svijetlosti, oko 1.2 metara u promjeru, koja se proteže na horizontalnoj ravnini 30 cm ispod nogu, okolo Eckasha u sredini. (Ova slika predstavlja vaš osobni Maharic štit.)
• UDAHNITE, dok koristite dah da privučete više Blijedo Srebrne Svijetlosti gore kroz Blijedo Srebrni Kabel od Zemljine Jezgre u Eckasha, u središtu vašeg osobnog Maharic štita.
• IZDAHNITE, koristeći dah da gurnete Blijedo Srebrno Svijetlo iz Eckasha van u svoj Maharic štit. Zamislite da vaš Maharic štit sada pulsira kako se ispunjava Blijedo Srebrnom Svjetlošću iz Zemljine jezgre.
• UDAHNITE, ponovo povucite još Blijedo Srebrne Svijetlosti gore iz Zemljine Jezgre kroz Blijedo Srebrni Kabel u Eckasha i zamislite kako se Blijedo Srebrni Kabel širi na 1.2 metara širine, formirajući stup Blijedo Srebrnog Svijetla koji ide iz Zemljine Jezgre izravno u vaš Maharic Štit promjera 1.2 metara.
• IZDAHNITE, ponovno koristeći izdahnuti dah da gurnete Blijedo Srebrno Svijetlo iz Eckasha van u svoj Maharic Štit, dok zamišljate da vaš Maharic Štit "poprima vlastiti život". Disk se iznenada "preklapa prema gore" sa "pucajućim" osjećajem u obliku STUPA promjera 1.2 metra Blijedo Srebrnog Svijetla okolo i prolazi kroz vaše tijelo (to je Vaš Maharic PEČAT. privremeni skalarno-valni stup za frekvencije svjetlosti dimenzija 10/11/12 ~ to blokira neharmonične frekvencije od dimenzija 1 do 12 i počinje usklađivati neharmonične frekvencije u vašem tijelu i bio-polju na njihove izvorne iz savršenog prirodnog poredka)
• UDAHNITE, zamišljajući da dah povlači Blijedo Srebrno svjetlo iz Stupa koji obuhvaća tijelo U svaku tjelesnu ćeliju; osjetite žmarce kako se Blijedo Srebrno Svijetlo kreće kroz fizičko tijelo.
• IZDAHNITE, zamišljajući da možete osjetiti energiju Blijedo Srebrne Svijetlosti kako se širi U svaku pukotinu tijela, a zatim van oko tijela u Bio-polje.
• Dišite normalno kroz minutu - dvije, dok se osjećaj Blijedo Srebrne svjetlosti kreće kroz vas, kako bi osjetili prisutnost energije Blijedo Srebrnog Stupa Maharic Štita 1.2 metra oko vašeg tijela. Što više vremena trošite dišući i osjećajući energije, više frekvencija dimenzija 10/11/12 privlačite u svoj Stup, što će povećati duljinu vremena koliko će Stup Maharic Pečata ostati u vašem bio-polju.
• Vratite vašu pozornost na Eckasha još uvijek postavljen 30 cm ispod vaših nogu.
• UDAHNITE, koristeći dah za povući Eckasha gore kroz Središnju Vertikalnu Tjelesnu Struju na vrh vaše glave (7. "Krunska" Čakra), do točke oko 90 cm iznad glave (14. Čakre).
• IZDAHNITE SNAŽNO, koristeći dah da brzo proširite Eckasha van na horizontalnu ravninu od 14. čakre, dok Eckasha iznenada ne "nestane" iz pogleda, s blagim "pucajućim" osjećajem.
• Dišite normalno, dok za trenutak vizualizirate briljantan 1.2 metara Blijedo Srebrni Stup Svjetlosti koji se proteže iz Zemljine jezgre prema gore, u potpunosti obuhvaćajući vaše tijelo i proteže se daleko iznad glave u Zemljinu atmosferu, te u jednu Zvijezdu Blijedo Plave Svijetlosti daleko u dubokom svemiru. Vaš Maharic Štit je sada privremeno aktiviran i vaš Stup Maharic Pečata se privremeno očituje unutar vašeg Bio-Polja. Maharic Pečat će u početku ostati u vašem Bio-Polju između 20 minuta do 1 sata. Što se više ova vježba koristi, Stup će ostajati dulje.
• Za brzo pojačanje Eckasha Maharic Pečata, jednom kada je cijeli proces bio izveden unutar 24 sata: Jednostavno Zamislite iskru Blijedo Srebrnog Svjetla na epifizi, te izdahnite brzo dolje u Zemljinu Jezgru i zamislite da se Zemljin Maharic Štit vrti, pozovite u misli Blijedo Srebrni Kabel i Udahnite sve do gore oko vas kabel promjera od 1.2 metara, formirajte Stup i produžite ga "u duboki svemir" do Zvijezde Blijedo Plavog Svijetla.

Dio MCEO serije Slobode Učenja®

* Nije namijenjeno za Dijagnosticiranje, Tretiranje, ili Liječenje zaraza ili bolesti, niti je za prikazivanje ili njihovo tumačenje, na bilo koji način, kao zamjena za profesionalnu medicinsku, kiruršku ili psihijatrijsku skrb ili liječenje.

12
##### Alternative / Moji prijevodi...(Croatian language only!)
« on: February 13, 2011, 05:02:17 PM »
Evo u kratko da navedem stranice sa kojih prevodim određene stvari tako da možete vidjeti originale.

Slijedeće navedene stvari su dostupne sa Azurite Press stranica.

13
##### Other (Public) / Battery capacitance tester...
« on: January 04, 2011, 01:32:12 PM »
Its looks like I need to start new project.
I came across desulfator schematic for lead-acid batteries while ago:
http://www3.telus.net/sail/sj23/e_electrical_tips/e04.html

And build one to see if I can restore some of few batteries from my back yard.

I figured that desulfation process should work something like on logarithmic scale, definitely not linear. Cristal structure will star slowly to erode, then as it becoming thinner and thinner process should go faster and faster until hits the end – clean plate, and become slower and slower.
In other words, initially there will be almost no change in periods of charging and discharging thru desulfator.
As desulfator is used in next periods, charging and discharging time should be significantly longer and longer until you hit near clean state of the lead plate.
After that time all next desulfation periods should be at the same time or insignificantly longer.

So far I tested desulfator on two batteries:
First is some sort of gel-lead based battery. After running desulfator for month or so there was no difference that I can see. Battery is charging and discharging at the same rate as before.
So I start to wonder if desulfator works at all.

Next battery which I used was real lead-acid, so I clean it up, refill with distilled water and try with desulfator again. There was something really interesting started to happen.
After couple of weeks, periods of charging and desulfation become shorter and shorter.
I end using this after I was charged battery under an hour and desulfator is empty it in 5-6 hours.
Basically it looks like battery is totally dead, however I noticed that something is strange whit it. When charging, initially voltage goes at 20V and after minute or so it drops to about 13V and charging is continued normally up to 14,4V.
I didn’t see this on any other battery, but this looks like effect of negative current- radiant energy which John Bedini (http://johnbedini.net/) is described for charging with back EM pulses.

But if you look design of desulfator it’s at functional level almost the same as Bedini monopole energizer. Difference is that Bedini uses magnet on wheel to match battery frequency.
To solve this problem of fast charge/discharge I need to fully discharge battery (probably short circuit it) and then recharge it in few times.
However if this is not negative current/radiant energy problem, then this process will destroy totally battery.
So I need to build battery capacitance tester to see if discharging/charging cycle increases or decrease capacitance. If capacitance is decreased, then desulfator is burn my battery.

14
##### LARP (Public) / Post-Apokaliptični LARP
« on: October 29, 2010, 12:21:48 PM »
Stari naziv je Fallout LARP i neće se više koristiti.
U razradi pravila došli smo do zaključka da je najbolje ne ići po PC igri Fallout.
Dosadašnja pravila će se generalno mijenjati i trenutno je predložen ovaj sistem:
• Kratka povijest događanja na području Hrvatske nakon 2161, uzimajući u obzir događaje iz Fallout igre kao referentnu točku (http://fallout.wikia.com/wiki/Fallout).
• Pravila (kraća nego ova sadašnja) za igru

Opcionalno se mogu pojaviti pravila za pojedine terene.

Ostali dokumenti što spadaju pod organizatore i gamemastere:
• Mapa hrvatske sa označenim resursima.
• Popis predmeta ingame preko kojih će se određivati koja grupa može sto unijeti u igru.
• Opis i konstrukcijska dokumentacija o izradi brava, elektronike između računala i brava, te ostalih stvari za funkcioniranje igre.
• Dokumentacija za izradu testova i načina testiranja kod prelaska određenih klasa na viši nivo.
• Administrativna dokumentacija za prijavu igrača i vođenje igre.

15
##### IC Tester device (Public) / FAQ
« on: October 28, 2010, 12:04:08 AM »